Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics
Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics (ISSP) was founded in 1972 with the aim to develop fundamental and applied research in the fields of microelectronics, acoustoelectronics, physics of superconductors and low temperature physics, optics and spectroscopy. Throughout the years ISSP grew up covering new modern areas like liquid crystal physics, soft and living matter physics, nanophysics.
The main scientific and applied achievements of the Institute are in the field of condensed matter theory, critical phenomena and phase transitions, superconductivity and superconducting materials, low temperature physics, nanophysics, liquid crystal physics, soft and living matter physics, structure and properties of crystals and amorphous materials, atom and plasma physics, high precision thermometers, integrated optics, optical fibres, acoustoelectric and microelectronic sensors, metal vapour lasers.
Nowadays, the mission of the Institute consists in the development, dissemination and storage of knowledge in condensed matter physics, optics, spectroscopy and laser physics; application of this knowledge for the creation of new materials with specific properties for various applications, development of new analytical methods for micro- and nano-technologies as well as new approaches in the interdisciplinary fields of physics with biology, archaeology, medicine etc; transfer of innovations to the industry of Bulgaria and the EU.
The main areas of work at ISSP are:
- Functional materials and nanostructures
- Laser physics, atomic physics and applications
- Soft matter systems for different applications
Since its establishment, the Institute actively participates in the training of young scientists and provides helpful research results for energetics, the preservation of cultural heritage, national defense, medicine, integral and functional electronics. The main scientific achievements of ISSP are in:
- Research and modeling of physical and chemical processes in condensed environments, phases and phase transitions, properties of non-linear dynamic systems.
- Physics and technology of thin inorganic semiconductor and dielectric layers, carbon nanostructures, nanostructured biomaterials and liquid crystals; applications in nanoelectronics, opto- and acoustic-electronics, sensing devices.
- Crystal growth; multifunctional magnetic systems and superconductors.
- Photonics, optics and spectroscopy in nonlinear and anisotropic environments.
- Laser and atomic physics, applications of lasers in archaeometry, medicine, nanotechnologies, ecology.
ISSP has at its disposal a rich variety of scientific equipment, precise methods and technologies:
- Thin film and bulk material technology: clean room with a system for atomic layer deposition (ALD) -TFS200 Beneq and plasma enhanced system for chemical vapour deposition (PECVD)-Oxford Nanolab PlasmaLab System 100; high-vacuum technological system for deposition of thin optic films Symphony 9; furnace (Carbolite, UK) for the synthesis of high-temperature superconducting materials; equipment and technology for applying thin layers for microelectronic, optoelectronic and acoustic electronic sensors; equipment and know-how for single crystal growth from oxide materials.
- Unique measurement equipment (Physical Properties Measurement System produced by Quantum Design, USA) for studies of electrical, magnetic and thermal properties of materials, surfaces and structures; Keithley 4200-SCS semiconductor parameter analyzer integrated with a pulse generator; electrical measurement systems for micro- and nanoelectronic structures; system for the study of the sorption properties of quartz microscales with different coatings in gas phase; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy system, Bio-Logic SP-200.
- Structural and spectroscopic methods: scanning probe microscope (VEECO, Multimode V, USA) to conduct accurate nanoscale studies of the morphological, electrical, magnetic and other surface properties; spectral-ellipsometric measurements (M2000D automatic ellipsometer suitable for samples with thickness less than 0.1nm); spectrometry from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared spectral regions (BRUKER – Vertex 70 and Perkin Elmer – Lambda 1050 spectrophotometers).
- Laser systems: various laser systems – metal vapor gas lasers, solid nanosecond lasers emitting in UV, visible and near IR spectral area, and Spectra-Physics femtosecond laser system with the ability to adjust the wavelength from 260 to 2600 nm for the needs of plasma physics, laser analysis and materials processing, with applications in nanotechnology, medicine, archaeology, ecology, etc.; high-tech experimental laser equipment for atomic cooling (~ 0.0001 K).
- Apparatus for the study of biophysical objects: equipment for video microscopy and micromanipulation of lipid membranes and cells for conducting experimental studies of physicochemical properties, determination of flexural and stretch elastic moduli; permeability; morphology, etc.; an automated microfluidic system and a compact cytometer, CellASIC ™ ONIX, Merck Millipore, Scepter 2.0 (EMD Millipore) for kinetics research of various biological objects, automated tracking and analysis of processes running in living cells over a prolonged time interval; Laboratory MaxiMem membrane filtration system from Prozesstechnik GmbH for extraction and concentration, purification and desalination, membrane filtration and recycling.
The Institute has accreditation for the right to teach in the educational and scientific degree “doctor” in professional fields 4.1. “Physical Sciences” and 4.3. “Biological Sciences” in the following specialties:
- Condensed matter physics;
- Laser Physics, Physics of Atoms, Molecules and Plasma, and Physics of Wave Processes;
- Biophysics (Physics of Living Matter).
ISSP scientists lecture and train students in general physics, thermodynamics and statistical physics, analytical chemistry at Sofia University, Sofia Technical University, UACEG, UCTM, etc. These lectures are in new, modern areas such as soft matter physics, bioelectronics and disordered systems. There are also special courses in solid state physics, superconductivity, magnetism, eco-physics, etc. Scientists from the Institute have lectures on theoretical physics, solid physics, mathematical methods, biophysics in a number of universities abroad (Slovenia, Spain, Germany, Belgium).
Acad. Georgi Nadjakov Solid State Physics Institute has accumulated 40 years of experience in the education of students and training at postgraduate, doctoral and post-doctoral level. For the period 2010-2016, over 20 PhD students successfully defended their theses, and a large number of graduates and postgraduates were prepared. ISSP scientists were supervisors or consultants of PhD students who successfully defended their theses abroad while the dissertations of some of them were being written for the most part at ISSP.