The Institute of Electronics “Academician Emil Djakov” was established in 1963 as a non-profit state organization conducting research, education and dissemination of scientific knowledge in the fields of Physical Electronics, Photonics and Quantum Electronics and Radiophysics. Through the several decades of its history, the Institute’s research activities have comprised dynamically developing fields of applied physics and technologies such as development, treatment and analysis of hich-tech materials, physics of nano-sized objects and nanotechnologies, nanoelectronics, opto-electronics, quantum optics, environmental physics and monitoring, biomedical photonics.
Research and expert activities
The research efforts in physical electronics are concentrated on studying and solving the problems of generating and controlling electron and ion beams and their interaction with materials in particular. This includes the development of new methods, theoretical modeling, research and industrial equipment for micro- and nano-structuring, thin films deposition and study, modification of surfaces, vacuum melting and welding of metals by intense electron beams. The physical basis of technologies is studied for creating nanostructures, nanomaterials and nanoelements by using electron and ion beams. Computer simulation and experimental investigation of electron and ion lithography of sub-micron and nanoelectronic structures are carried out. The possibilities of creating nanomaterials and nanoelectronic elements using superconducting and polymeric layers as well as experimental devices on their basis are studied. Another field of study is the study of the fundamental properties of gases and plasma of noble gases and metal vapors, the restoration of the electron-molecule interaction sections, the modelling of binary interactions in molecular gases for applications in industry, ecology and spectroscopy; investigation of arc plasma and creation of plasma meters for technological applications; plasma assisted formation of thin layers and coatings and realization of plasma-chemical processes.
The research in photonics and quantum electronics comprises theoretical and experimental studies on the interaction of short and ultrashort lasers pulses with matter; development of novel technologies based on near-field optics, plasmonics and nanostructuring; laser deposition and treatment of active and passive optic and magnetic thin films; light-induced absorption and transmission in alkaline vapors for application in metrology; development of complex laser systems for analysis and modification of semiconducting and superconducting materials; theoretical and experimental investigation of non-linear optical phenomena; biomedical photonics.
The research efforts in radiophysics are directed to clarifying the processes of interaction of optical and microwave electromagnetic radiation with the atmosphere and the Earth’s surface; laser remote sensing and monitoring of the atmosphere; microwave remote radiometric measurement of soil moisture content; methods for detecting, strengthening and processing of signals in order to receive and interpret information; constructing microwave units and systems for radar and communication applications; studying non-linear processes in optical communication media.
The Academician Emil Djakov Institute of Electronics was where the first Bulgarian laser, lidar, ultrahigh vacuum pump, micro-channel electron-optical converter, parametric microwave amplifier, Josephson junctions and SQUID, portable microwave moisture meter, magnetometer, installations for electron lithography, electron beam melting, refining, and welding were built, followed by the development of several advanced e-beam, laser and plasma technologies, novel types of gas sensors as well as methods for nanostructured materials formation.
Scientists from the Institute are actively working as experts in a number of governmental and international organizations, such as the National Science Fund, scientific councils in other institutes within the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, academic councils of universities, editorial boards of Bulgarian and international scientific journals, expert councils of the European Commission, program committees of national and international scientific events. Winners of the “Pythagoras” National Award of the Ministry of Education and Science for the best scientists in Bulgaria until 2017 are three of IE employees. The only scientists from Eastern Europe nominated for the Decartes Award in 2004 are also working for IE. Every year, scientists from the Institute of Electronics hold about 35 training courses in ten universities in Bulgaria. Associates of the Institute visit universities in countries of the European Union, Japan and others.
The Institute of Electronics has accreditation to teach PhD students for the period 2014-2019 in the following fields of higher education 4 “Natural sciences, Mathematics and Informatics”, professional field 4.1. “Physical Sciences”, by scientific specialties:
- Radio physics and physical electronics
- Physics of wave processes
- Physics of atoms and molecules
- Mathematical modelling and application of mathematics in physics
- Plasma Physics and Gas Discharge
IE-BAS actively participates in the educational program for qualitative and competitive training with different forms of education, educational initiatives and contracts for cooperation with other educational organizations and higher education institutions in Bulgaria. Within the framework of the training initiatives of IE-BAS, students and graduates have been taught from the University of Sofia, Plovdiv University, Technical University-Sofia, TU-branch Plovdiv, TU Sofia-MTF, MGU-Sofia, UCTM-Sofia while members of the team of IE-BAS held lectures and exercises and were supervisors of Master’s and Bachelor’s graduate theses.
Intensive work is being done within existing international collaborations and / or specializations of scientists from IE-BAS abroad, with trainings of students and PhD students at Saratov State University, Russia, University of Keio, Japan, Clemson University, USA and others.